Although they represent 1% of the U.S. population, Native American juveniles represent 2% to 3% of youth arrests in categories such as theft and alcohol possession. Similarly, they are committed to adult incarceration at a rate 1.84 times that of whites and are placed under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system at a rate 2.4 times that of whites. In four states with substantial Native American populations, they represent from 29% to 42% of juveniles held in secure confinement. The alcohol-related death rate among Native American youth stands at 17 times the national rate. Their suicide rate is triple the national average among males aged 15 to 24. Their high school dropout rate is the highest of any racial group…Incarcerated Native American youth also seem to receive disproportionately harsh treatment, including the use of pepper spray, restraints, and isolation.
Research by the National Indian Child Welfare Association shows that Native American youth are frequently placed in adult facilities—despite statutes prohibiting contact between adult and minor inmates in a correctional facility—because many of their communities lack dedicated juvenile facilities. This early exposure to a harsh prison environment can result from minor offenses such as truancy or from situations that would not normally warrant confinement, such as an overdose."
the reason so many youth are sent to adult facilities is not just because their tribal communities lack juvenile facilities (which is due to chronic underfunding and lack of resources, as well as an unwillingness to subject minors to confinement for criminal offenses on behalf of many tribes that choose instead to sentence those convicted to more traditional forms of restitution…which of course US government rarely takes seriously), it’s because many offenses are currently under federal jurisdiction (which means tribes don’t even have the option of alternative forms of justice regarding youth who have perpetrated crimes), and because of the conditions set in place that push youth towards crime in the first place (poverty, unstable homes, underfunded education and youth programming, unsupportive communities, etc).
Once again, I feel compelled to thank Tumblr.
In response to a general post about Captain America/Steve Rogers, someone posted about Isaiah Bradley. Since I never heard of this character before, I looked him up … and immediately discovered references to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Apparently, Marvel intended his origin story to directly reference the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (aka Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment) instead of an accident akin to that of Bruce Banner. [Reference: Truth Be Told: Authorship and the Creation of the Black Captain America]
Between 1932 and 1972, The U.S. Public Health Service conducted a study on the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African American sharecroppers in Alabama. They never told the men that they had syphilis and the men were never treated for syphilis. Meanwhile, penicillin was readily available and accepted as a medical treatment for the deadly disease. The significance of this infamous study, besides its inhumanity, is that it led to the creation of federally-mandated Institutional Review Boards to oversee experiments involving human subjects and the Belmont Report. [Reference: Tuskegee Syphilis Study]
I’m no expert on Marvel, so I can’t comment on the significance of the fact that they insisted on referencing this unpleasant side of American history in their “black Captain America”. I would rather see more recognition of the character himself so his story would actually be well-known (go Google it). The fact that he exists, however, is encouraging.
So, thank you Tumblr for reminding me that even though we use this blogging platform for funny gifs …we can also use it as a basis for education and expanding our understanding of history, law, politics, racism, and classism. By the way, the Belmont Report and its history were required reading for my university’s introduction to the study of history. The department chair wanted to impress upon us the importance of Institutional Review Boards if we decided to interview people for our history papers.
Isaiah was all things considered a very recent character, but he stands as very important because he’s a testament to a dark side of American history that most of pop culture, but especially comic books (which are largely built on nostalgia) rarely touch upon.
He was a pretty big deal because both Marvel and DC have a really strict reverence for the Golden Age (the first big comics boom during the late 30’s-40’s), so the fact that they were not only willing to insert a character like that into the Captain America mythos, but also in a way that directly references heinous shit the U.S. actually did, was very controversial and important.
I hope to god this character eventually makes his way to the MCU.
The fact that there are people who will fucking defend Loki to hell and back but take Sam Wilson, a black superhero, an all around great guy, and turn him into a villain just to fulfill their favorite white dick-fencing fuckboy thirst should be enough to prove how much racist filth parades through fandom. You bitches ain’t cute and I see you.
It makes me seethe how fandom likes to wrap their dislike and distrust of people of color up in pseudo-intellectual dribble that’s supposed to read like a cohesive and academic film analysis.
Your use of coded academic language to basically state that you don’t trust men of color near your precious white superhero booties is played out and we can see you for what you are. If you can apply reason and logic to things like “parent assassination would keep superhero from joining the group that killed them” but not “black man would not join neo-nazi hate group because of his race but also the fact that the character isn’t like that”, there’s something wrong with you.
Just like there’s something wrong with everyone that attacks the actions and motivations of men of color in the MCU (because so far, there aren’t any WOC as far as I can tell in the MCU Proper) when they wouldn’t (and don’t) dare to do the same with the white heroes, villains, and sidecharacters in the series.
There’s something wrong with people who write fics, headcanons, and meta revolving around how shitty Rhodey is to Tony. How shitty a friend he is. How abusive he is. How he is less important to the narrative that Tony’s got than Bruce Banner of all the freaking people.
There’s something wrong with how there are only mere handfuls of fic that cast MCU Nick Fury as someone that isn’t a manipulative, scary, stereotype of a villain.
And there’s definitely something wrong with people trying to pretend that they are ~serious critics~ as they try to theorize that Sam Wilson could be a secret Hydra agent based on the fact that the directors/writers of Cap 2 didn’t want to have this movie feel like a multi-series comic crossover by not having Tony appear to snark where no Stark-snark was needed.
Go read a book damnit.
Maybe an actual comic book about these said MOC in comics or a book about race in film not written by a white person because this whole thing about “coded/hidden racist language presented as unbiased headcanon/exploration esp when slash ships are involved” is bullshit and people will come for you to make sure you know how wrong you are.
Caroline Looney Hunt (Yakama), in Healing the Dark Legacy of [Colonial Genocide] in Urban Native American Families
The article also includes a number of disturbing statistics about urban Indians: 20% live in economic poverty, and their rate of accidental death is 38% higher than the general population. They also have 54% more diabetes cases, are 126% more likely to have a disease of the liver and cirrhosis, and their death rates related to alcohol use are 178% higher than the general population. According to NUIFC, urban Native people are 1.8 times more likely have no plumbing, twice as likely to have no kitchen, three times as likely to have no phone and three times more likely to be homeless than the general population.
Also, Native American children have the highest rates of foster care placement of all minority groups according to this report. Kings County (Seattle) and Multnomah County (Portland) in Washington and Oregon States are among the highest in the US, at seven to five times disproportionate to Native populations.
What’s interesting is that once again, like with Paula Deen, America is captured by an individual white person who says really racist things and kind of conveniently overlooks their actually racist acts.
Donald Sterling had been known to be a perpetrator of housing discrimination. But not many people cared about that. But once he said no Black people at his games… that was when everybody got mad! Or at least pretended to.
Why is that?
America is a lot more concerned with appearing post-racial than actually being post-racial. Time and time again racist acts are ignored and swept under the rug. But every once in awhile a white person will be publicly dragged for saying something very racist.
That’s the unspoken rule in American race relations: you can be racist but don’t sound racist. You can treat people of color horribly, but you can’t verbally express that you want to treat them horribly. That is crossing the line in America. This isn’t 1965 anymore.
So every once in awhile a high profile white person forgets that we’re in “post-racial” America and that saying racist things is not okay and they become the white guilt scapegoat for the season. The white liberals condemn them and the white conservatives halfheartedly defend them on the basis of “free speech” and whatever other excuse. And white America sighs and says, look, we’re not racist!
Meanwhile Black players are still akin to slaves within an elaborate and lucrative plantation system. Meanwhile Black people in general are facing exacerbated economic barriers due to race so that they can’t be at many of these games anyway, even if they wanted to. Meanwhile there are Black and Latino families being denied housing. Meanwhile, in Paula Deen’s case, Black workers are still being under-paid and unacknowledged for the recipes they created."
Here are white men poised to run big marijuana businesses, dreaming of cashing in big—big money, big businesses selling weed—after 40 years of impoverished black kids getting prison time for selling weed, and their families and futures destroyed. Now, white men are planning to get rich doing precisely the same thing? …
After waging a brutal war on poor communities of color, a drug war that has decimated families, spread despair and hopelessness through entire communities, and a war that has fanned the flames of the very violence it was supposedly intended to address and control; after pouring billions of dollars into prisons and allowing schools to fail; we’re gonna simply say, we’re done now? I think we have to be willing, as we’re talking about legalization, to also start talking about reparations for the war on drugs, how to repair the harm caused. …
At the end of apartheid in South Africa there was an understanding that there could be no healing, no progress, no reconciliation without truth. You can’t just destroy a people and then say ‘It’s over, we’re stopping now.’ You have to be willing to deal with the truth, deal with the history openly and honestly."